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Hematology investigations,   are a group of laboratory tests that analyse components of the blood to assess various aspects of a person's health. These tests provide valuable information about the composition and function of blood cells and can help diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions. Here are some common hematological investigations:

  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC):

    • Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
    • Hemoglobin (Hb):  
    • Hematocrit (Hct):  
    • White Blood Cell Count (WBC):  
    • Platelet Count (Plt):  
  2. Peripheral Blood Smear (PBS): A microscopic examination of a blood sample to assess the size, shape, and appearance of blood cells. It helps diagnose conditions like anemia and blood cell disorders.

  3. Hemoglobin Electrophoresis: Separates different types of hemoglobin and is used to diagnose hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia.

  4. Coagulation Profile:

    • Prothrombin Time (PT): Measures the time it takes for blood to clot. Used to assess the function of the extrinsic coagulation pathway.
    • Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT): Measures the time it takes for blood to clot. Used to assess the function of the intrinsic coagulation pathway.
    • International Normalized Ratio (INR): Provides a standardized measurement of PT and is used to monitor patients on anticoagulant therapy.
  5. Blood Smear Examination: Microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to assess the morphology of blood cells, identify abnormalities, and diagnose conditions such as leukemia.

  6. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy: Involves obtaining a sample of bone marrow from the hip bone to examine the production and health of blood cells. It's used in the diagnosis of various blood disorders.

  7. Reticulocyte Count: Measures the number of young red blood cells (reticulocytes) in the blood. It helps assess the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells.

  8. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Measures the rate at which red blood cells settle in a tube of blood and is used as a non-specific marker of inflammation.

  9. D-dimer: Detects the presence of blood clots by measuring a breakdown product of fibrin. It's used in the diagnosis of conditions like deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).

  10. Bleeding Time and Clotting Time: Assess how long it takes for blood to stop flowing from a small incision and the time it takes for blood to clot in a test tube, respectively.

These hematology investigations are essential for diagnosing and monitoring blood disorders, anemia, bleeding disorders, clotting disorders, leukemia, and other conditions that affect the blood and its components. They play a critical role in guiding medical treatment and interventions to ensure the well-being of patients.


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