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Cytopathology services are a specialized branch of pathology that focuses on the examination and analysis of individual cells to diagnose diseases and conditions. These services play a crucial role in identifying abnormalities, assessing cancer risk, and guiding treatment decisions. Here's an overview of cytopathology services and their importance:

1. Pap Smears (Cervical Cytology): Pap smears are one of the most well-known cytopathology services. They involve the collection of cells from the cervix to detect early signs of cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia. Regular Pap smears are essential for early detection and prevention.

2. Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA): FNA is a minimally invasive procedure in which a thin needle is used to collect cells from suspicious lumps or masses in various parts of the body, such as the thyroid, breast, lymph nodes, and organs. These cells are then examined to determine if the lump is benign or malignant (cancerous).

3. Effusion Cytology: Effusion cytology involves the analysis of cells present in body fluids like pleural fluid (around the lungs), pericardial fluid (around the heart), and ascitic fluid (in the abdomen). It helps diagnose conditions like pleural effusion and pericarditis and assesses the presence of cancer cells.

4. Urine Cytology: Urine cytology is used to examine cells present in urine samples. It is primarily employed to detect and monitor urothelial carcinoma (bladder cancer) and other urinary tract abnormalities.

5. Respiratory Cytology: This service involves the examination of cells obtained from respiratory tract samples, including sputum, bronchial washings, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). It helps diagnose lung diseases, infections, and cancer.

6. Gynecological Cytology: Apart from Pap smears, gynecological cytology includes the analysis of cells obtained from vaginal and endocervical samples. It helps diagnose infections, inflammation, and precancerous or cancerous lesions.

7. Non-Gynecological Cytology: This category encompasses the examination of cells obtained from various non-gynecological sources, including fluids, tissues, and fine-needle aspiration specimens from different parts of the body. It is used to diagnose conditions such as lymphoma, thyroid disorders, and salivary gland tumors.

8. Liquid-Based Cytology: In liquid-based cytology, cells are collected and preserved in a liquid medium before examination. This method is commonly used in Pap smears and can provide more accurate results than traditional slide-based cytology.